112 yogas of delight and wonder

Kinds of Mispronunciation of Sanskrit!

Siksa - the science which teaches proper articulation and pronunciation of Vedic texts


śikā [p= 1070,1] [L=216519]
» below.
śikā [L=216527]
desire of being able to effect anything , wish to accomplish Kir. xv , 37

loc. or comp. ; śikayā or °kābhis , " skilfully , artistically , correctly ") MBh. Ka1v. &c

adhicitta-śikā , training in the higher thought ; adhiśīla-ś° , training in the higher morality ; adhiprajñā-ś° , training in the higher learning Dharmas. 140) , instruction , lesson , precept S3a1n3khBr. TUp. &c

Nya1yam. Sch.

vedā*gas q.v.) Pra1t. Mun2d2Up. &c


» śikā-nará)

Bignonia Indica L.
(H2B) f.
(H2) f.
[L=216528]learning study knowledge , art , skill in (
[L=216529]teaching , training (held by Buddhists to be of three kinds , viz.
[L=216530]chastisement , punishment
[L=216531]the science which teaches proper articulation and pronunciation of Vedic texts (one of the six
[L=216532]modesty , humility , diffidence
[L=216533](?) helping , bestowing , imparting (
[L=216534]the plant

Sanskrit Words for Mispronouncing

vy-āsa [p= 1035,2] [L=209338]
severing , separation , division Sarvad.


instr. ; abl. and -tas ind. in detail , at length , fully) MBh. Sus3r. BhP.

S3ulbas. VarBr2S.

N. of the pada-pāha or " disjoined text " Apra1t. ??

N. of a celebrated mythical sage and author (often called veda-vyāsa and regarded as the original compiler and arranger of the vedas , vedā*nta-sūtras &c ; he was the son of the sage parāśara and satyavatī , and half-brother of vicitra-vīrya and bhīma ; he was also called vādarāyaa or bādarāyaa , and kṛṣṇa from his dark complexion , and dvaipāyana because he was brought forth by satyavatī on a dvīpa or island in the Jumna ; when grown up he retired to the wilderness to lead the life of a hermit , but at his mother's request returned to become the husband of vicitra-vīrya's two childless widows , by whom he was the father of the blind dhta-rāṣṭra and of ṇḍu ; he was also the father of vidura [q.v.] by a slave girl , and of śuka , the supposed narrator of the bhāgavata-purāa , he was also the supposed compiler of the mahā-bhārata , the purāas , and other portions of Hindu sacred literature ; but the name vyāsa seems to have been given to any great typical compiler or author) MBh. Hariv. Pur. cf. IW. 371 n. 2 ; 373 &c

purāas &c in public (= haka-brāhmaa) MW.
vy-āsa [L=209345]
a bow weighing 100 palas L.
vy-āsa [p= 1039,2] [L=210095]
» [p= 1035,2].
(H2) m.
[L=209339]a kind of drawl (as a fault in pronunciation) ,
[L=209340]extension , diffusion , prolixity , detailed account (
[L=209341]width , breadth , the diameter of a circle
[L=209342]" distributing , disjoining " ,
[L=209343]" arranger , compiler " ,
[L=209344]a Brahman who recites or expounds the
(H2B) n.
(H1) &c

vára--pāta [p= 924,3] [L=187361]
the dropping or omission of a letter in pronunciation MW.
(H3) m.

vi-° kampita [p= 953,3] [L=193846]
trembling , shaking , tremulous , agitated , unsteady R2itus.
vi-° kampita [L=193847]
a kind of sinking of the tone of the voice APra1t.
vi-° kampita [L=193848]
a partic. faulty pronunciation of the vowels Pat.
(H3) mfn.
(H3B) n.
(H3B) n.

vi-kleśa [L=194328]
" indistinctness " , incorrect pronunciation of the dentals ib.
(H2) m.

prayo-gá 1 [p= 688,1] [L=136219]
( Padap. pra-yóga) (for 2. » under. pra-yuj) coming to a meal RV. x , 7 , 5 ( Sa1y. = pra-yoktavya)
prayo-gá 1 [L=136219.1]
N. of a ṛṣi TS.
prayo-gá 1 [L=136219.2]
(with bhārgava) author of RV. viii , 91 Anukr.
prayoga 2 [p= 688,2] [L=136310]
(for 1. » under 2. práyas , col.1) joining together , connection Var.

Vpra1t. Pa1n2. (loc. often = in the case of Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 1-4 , 25 ; 26 &c )

MBh. R. &c


S3Br. S3rS.

Ma1lav. Ra1jat.

esp. of drugs or magic ; cf. IW. 402 , 1) , use Gr2S3rS. MBh. &c (ena , āt and °ga-tas ifc. = by means of)

opp. to , " theory ") Ma1lav.

ais , by use of means) MBh. Sus3r.

Siddh. Vop.

Mr2icch. Ka1lid. (°ga-to-dś , to see actually represented » on the stage Ratna7v. )

Ka1lid. Prab.

S3rS. RPra1t. Pa1n2. Sch.
688,3] [L=136323]

Mn. MBh.






cf. pra-yāga) L.
(H2) mfn.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2) m.
[L=136311]position , addition (of a word)
[L=136312]hurling , casting (of missiles)
[L=136313]offering , presenting
[L=136314]undertaking , beginning , commencement
[L=136315]a design , contrivance , device , plan
[L=136316]application , employment (
[L=136317]practice , experiment (
[L=136318]a means (only
[L=136319](in gram.) an applicable or usual form
[L=136320]exhibition (of a dance) , representation (of a drama)
[L=136321]a piece to be represented
[L=136322]utterance , pronunciation , recitation , delivery
[p= a formula to be recited , sacred text
[L=136324]lending at interest or on usury , investment
[L=136325]principal , loan bearing interest
[L=136326]an example
[L=136327]cause , motive , affair , object
[L=136328]consequence , result
[L=136329]ceremonial form , course of proceeding
[L=136330]a horse (

dh [L=101818]
held , borne , maintained , supported kept , possessed

RV. &c

scil. tulayā) MBh.

&c ) Mn. MBh. Ka1v.

kare , by the hand) Hit.


loc. or dat.) MBh. R.


Pra1t. (am ind. solemnly , slowly Pan5c. iii , 72÷73)

antare) deposited as surety , pledged ib. iv , 31÷32

comp.) L.
dh [L=101829]
N. of a son of the 13th manu Hariv. (v.l. bhtha)
dh [L=101830]
of a descendant of druhyu and son of dharma Pur. (cf. dhārteya)
dh [L=101831]
a partic. manner of fighting Hariv.
(H2) mfn.
[L=101819]used , practised , observed
[L=101820]measured , weighed (with or
[L=101821]worn (as clothes , shoes , beard ,
[L=101822]kept back , detained (
[L=101823]drawn tight (reins)
[L=101824]turned towards or fixed upon , ready or prepared for , resolved on (
[L=101825]continuing , existing , being
[L=101826]prolonged (in pronunciation)
[L=101828]quoted , cited by (
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) n.

ni-° mada [p= 550,3] [L=108924]
pronunciation which is distinct but slow (one of the 7 vāca sthānāni , or degrees of pronunciation) TPra1t.
(H3) m.

káraa--vinyaya [p= 254,1] [L=44257]
manner of pronunciation TPra1t.
(H3) m.
káraa--sthāna-bheda [L=44261]
difference of articulation or organ of pronunciation.
(H3) m.

áti--sparśa [p= 13,1] [L=2854]
too marked contact (of the tongue and palate) in pronunciation.
(H3) m.
an-uccāra [p= 32,2] [L=6278]
non-pronunciation , skipping words (in reciting hymns). » uc-car.
(H1) m.
an-uccāraa [L=6278.1]
non-pronunciation , skipping words (in reciting hymns). » uc-car.
(H1) n.
anu-nāsika [p= 34,1] [L=6522]
nasal , uttered through the nose (as one of the five nasal consonants , or a vowel , or the three semivowels y , v , l , under certain circumstances ; in the case of vowels and semivowels , the mark $ is used to denote this nasalization)

anu-nāsika [L=6524]
a nasal twang
anu-nāsika [L=6525]
speaking through the nose (a fault in pronunciation).
(H1) mfn.
[L=6523]the nasal mark $
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.

ambū-krita [p= 84,1] [L=14559]
(ambū used onomatopoetically to denote by trying to utter mb the effect caused by shutting the lips on pronouncing a vowel) , pronounced indistinctly (so that the words remain too much in the mouth)

ambu , water]) sputtered , accompanied with saliva Pat. La1t2y. (an- ,neg.)
ambū-krita [L=14561]
a peculiar indistinct pronunciation of the vowels RPra1t. Pat.
ambū-krita [L=14562]
roaring (of beasts) accompanied with emission of saliva Uttarar. Ma1lati1m.
(H1) mfn.
[L=14560]([in later writers derived fr.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.

a-yathā-mātram [p= 84,3] [L=14734]
not according to measure or quantity (a defect in the pronunciation of vowels) RPra1t.
(H3) ind.
ardhaka [p= 92,3] [L=16322]
forming a half. Bhpr.
ardhaka [L=16323]
the half. Hcat.
ardhaka [L=16324]
N. of a wrong pronunciation of the vowels Pat.
ardhaka [L=16325]
water-snake L.
(H2) mfn.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) m.

kampa [p= 252,3] [L=43914]
trembling , tremor , trembling motion , shaking MBh. Sus3r. &c

cf. bhūmi-kampa , mahī-k° , &c )

svarita accent which may take place if the svarita syllable is followed by an udātta syllable) Nir. &c

of a man.
(H2) m.
[L=43915]earthquake (
[L=43916]tremulous or thrilling pronunciation (a modification of the
[L=43917]a kind of time (in mus.)

kala [p= 260,1] [L=45601]
(ā)n. (etym. doubtful) indistinct , dumb Br2A1rUp. ChUp.
260,2] [L=45602]
ifc. , pa , or aśru preceding) indistinct or inarticulate (on account of tears) MBh. R. &c

R. BhP. Vikr. &c


kala [L=45606]
(scil. svara) a low or soft and inarticulate tone (as humming , buzzing &c ) L.
kala [L=45607]
Shorea robusta L.
kala [L=45608]
(in poetry) time equal to four mātras or instants W.
kala [L=45609]
a class of manes MBh.
kala [L=45610]
semen virile L.
kala [L=45611]
Zizyphus Jujuba
kala [p= 1324,1] [L=326990]
N. of a poet, Subh.
(H1) mf
[p= (
[L=45603]low , soft (as a tone) , emitting a soft tone , melodious (as a voice or throat)
[L=45604]a kind of faulty pronunciation of vowels
[L=45605]weak , crude , undigested
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m. pl.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H2) m.

prāti--śākhya [p= 706,3] [L=139907]
(fr. -śākham) a treatise on the peculiar euphonic combination and pronunciation of letters which prevails in different śākhās of the vedas (there are 4 prātiśākhya one for the śākala-śākhā of the RV. ; two for particular śākhās of the black and white yajur-vedas , and one for a śākhā of the AV. ; cf. IW. 149 , 150)
(H3) n.
barbara--tā [p= 722,1] [L=142944]
a partic. stammering pronunciation of the letter r RPra1t.
(H3) f.
bahi--śri [p= 726,3] [L=144094]
°híh-) ind. said of a partic. pronunciation S3Br.
(H3) (
bha° kitá [p= 742,3] [L=147558]
eaten or drunk , chewed , masticated , devoured , enjoyed , partaken of S3Br. &c

partic. bad pronunciation of words) L.
bha° kitá [L=147560]
the being eaten by (instr.) R.
(H3) mfn.
[L=147559]eaten (said of a
(H3B) n.

mukha--sukha [p= 820,1] [L=164989]
causing ease of pronunciation Pa1n2. 3-3 , 57 Sch.
(H3) n.

romaśá [p= 890,1] [L=179974]
(ā́)n. (cf. lomaśa) having thick hair or wool or bristles , hairy , shaggy RV. &c

romaśá [L=179976]
a sheep , ram L.
romaśá [L=179977]
a hog , boar L.
romaśá [L=179978]
N. of two plants (= kambhī and piṇḍā*lu) L.
romaśá [L=179979]
= dullala (?) L.
romaśá [L=179980]
N. of a ṛṣi BhP.
romaśá [L=179981]
of an astronomer (cf. -siddhā*nta)
romaśá [L=179983]
another plant (= dagdhā) L.
romaśá [L=179984]
N. of the reputed authoress of RV. i , 126 , 7 RAnukr.
romaśá [L=179986]
the pudenda RV. x , 86 , 16.
(H2) mf
[L=179975]applied to a faulty pronunciation of vowels
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) n.

lomaśya [p= 908,2] [L=183726]
hairiness , woolliness MW.
lomaśya [L=183727]
" roughness " , N. of a partic. pronunciation of the sibilants RPra1t.
(H2) n.
(H2B) n.

vi-° bhajya---pāha [p= 977,2] [L=198212.1]
the distinct pronunciation (of every sound) Pin3g. Sch.
(H4) m.
ví--rāga 1 [p= 952,1] [L=193443]
(ā)n. passionless , without feeling , dispassionate , indifferent (sarvatas , " to everything ") R. BhP.
vi-rāga 2 [p= 982,1] [L=199109]
(for 1. » [p= 952,1]) change or loss of colour Naish.

Pa1n2. 6-4 , 91

loc. abl. , or comp.) Ka1v. Ra1jat. BhP.

982,2] [L=199113]

partic. high number Buddh.

(H3) mf
(H2) m.
[L=199110]excitement , irritation
[L=199111]aversion , dislike or indifference to (
[L=199112]indifference to external things or worldly objects
[p= the faulty suppression of a sound in pronunciation ,
śūna [p= 1085,1] [L=220060]
( Pa1n2. 7-2 , 14) swelled , swollen (esp. " morbidly ") , increased , grown Sus3r.
śūna [L=220061]
N. of a man MBh.
śū́na [L=220062]
emptiness (orig. " swollen state " , " hollowness " cf. śūnya below) , lack , want , absence RV.
śūna [L=220063]
a partic. incorrect pronunciation (esp. of vowels) RPra1t.
śūna [p= 1086,1] [L=220258]
[p= 1085,1].
śūna [p= 1106,2] [L=224482]
» [p= 1085,1].
(H2) mfn.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) m.
(H1) »
(H3) &c
śvāsa [p= 1106,1] [L=224401]
hissing , snorting , panting R. Katha1s. BhP.

= prā*a , asu) MBh. Ka1v. &c

RPra1t. , Introd.


S3ak. Sa1h.

kudra , tamaka , chinna , mahat , and ūrdhva) Sus3r.

(H2) m.
[L=224402]respiration , breath (also as a measure of time
[L=224403]breathing or aspiration (in the pronunciation of consonants)
[L=224405]sighing , a sigh
[L=224406]affection of the breath , hard breathing , asthma (of which there are five kinds , viz.
sa-vāra [p= 1115,1] [L=226157]
raa &c » [p= 1116,1].
sa-vāra [p= 1116,1] [L=226338]
(ifc. f(ā).) covering , concealing , closing up MW.

opp. to the vi-vāra q.v. , and regarded as one of the bāhya-prayatnas) Pa1n2. 1-1 , 9 Sch.

Mr2icch. vii , (v.l.) 6÷7

(H1) °
(H2) m.
[L=226339]compression or contraction of the throat or of the vocal chords (in pronunciation) , obtuse articulation (
[L=226340]an obstacle , impediment
sa-daśá [p= 1143,1] [L=231379]
compression (of the lips) MBh.



AV. Br. Pur. Sus3r.

of those parts of the body which are used for grasping or seizing (as the thumb and forefinger together , the opposite eye-teeth , the nippers of a crab &c ) Ya1jn5. VarBr2S. Sus3r. Pan5cat. Katha1s.

partic. naraka or hell (where the flesh of the wicked is tortured with pincers) Pur.


partic. ekā*ha Vait.

&c (fixed according to the compass) L.

(H2) m.
[L=231380]too great compression of the teeth in the pronunciation of vowels
[L=231381]junction , connection
[L=231382]a pair of tongs or pincers or nippers
[L=231385]a chapter or section of a book
[L=231387]the site of a village
a-romaśa [p= 89,1] [L=15566]
id. VarBr2S.
a-romaśa [p= 1316,1] [L=313830]
absence of a partic. faulty pronunciation of the sibilants, Ma1n2d2S3. 1.
(H2) mfn.
(H2) n.
ud-ghriṣṭa [p= 1322,1] [L=323060]
n. a partic. fault in pronunciation, S3iksh.

(H2) (also)

taka [p= 227,2] [L=39150]
N. of a man , mispronunciation of taka Pat. and Ka1s3. on śivasūtra 2.
(H1) m.

Notes on the Pronunciation Wars

The Century: Volume 11 - Page 363
1876 - Free Google eBook - Read
It is bad enough to have a Sanskrit text forced on one's attention, although its solid letters are of considerable beauty, and augurwell for the ... This consists in the inability or dislike to pronounce many combinations of consonants. ...

Sanskrit & Prakrit, sociolinguistic issues - Page 210
Madhav Deshpande - 1993 - 230 pages - Preview
Abhyankar (1974: 35) notes that the TaittirTya reciters occasionally pronounce n in the place of n without any reason: ... JA Stewart, Manual of Colloquial Burmese, London, 1955, p. 6. 213. Banikanta Kakati, Assamese, Its Formation and ...

Reservation for Other Backward Classes in Indian Central ... - Page 302
W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K. Kandasamy - Preview
They clearly known the law will never help the sudras it is the laws of manu which has very badly discriminated the ... learn he should be punished by either cutting of his tongue or by pouring molten lead into his mouth and ears; ...

Ambedkar on law, constitution, and social justice
Mohammad Shabbir - 2005 - 403 pages - Snippet view
The ancient legal text, Manu Smriti (the laws of the mythic codifier, Manu) prescribed draconic punishment for ... the untouchable was forbidden to hear sacred text (Manu prescribed pouring molten lead in the ears of offenders) even ...
Add to My Library▼

Civil Religion: A Dialogue in the History of Political Philosophy - Page 385
Ronald Beiner - 2010 - 448 pages - Preview
The Laws of Manu, followed by orthodox Hindus, prescribed the method of execution. ... molten lead poured into his ears.” See Gita Mehta, Snakes and Ladders: Glimpses of Modern India (New York: Anchor Books, 1997), p. 120. ...

Arundhati Roy's The god of small things: Volume 1 - Page 24
Alex Tickell - 2007 - 183 pages - Google eBook - Preview
As a response to the increasing complexity and mobility of Hindu society, the law code of Manu (also known as the ... that if an untouchable hears the recital of a shloka or sacred verse he must have molten lead poured in to his ears. ...

The Sacred Laws of the Aryas: as taught in the school of ... - Page 236
1879 - 312 pages - Free Google eBook - Read
Now if he listens intentionally to (a recitation of) the Veda, his ears shall be filled with (molten ... Âpastamba II, 10, 27, 14; Manu VIII, 270, 279-283; Ya^ flavalkya II, 215. Haradatta adds that an abusive word or a blow given in ...

The sacred laws of the Âryas: as taught in the schools of ... - Page 239
Āpastamba, Gautama Buddha, Vasishtha Muni Ojhā - 1898 - Free Google eBook - Read
Now if he listens intentionally to (a recitation of) the Veda, his ears shall be filled with (molten) tin or lac. 5. ... Manu VIII, 267; Ya^lavalkyalll, 204-207. Manu VIII, 136 states one Karshapaaa or copper Pawa contains 80 Rakiikas ..
The First Great Political Realist: Kautilya and His Arthashastra - Page 23
Roger Boesche - 2003 - 127 pages - Google eBook - Preview
(Dharmasutras, 71) Later legal texts prescribed pouring molten lead into the ears of a Shudra caught listening to ... (Thapar 1966, 56; Sharma 1990, 145; Laws of Manu, 241) Untouchables lived outside the boundaries of town or village. ...
Ancient future: the teachings and prophetic wisdom of the seven ... - Page 133
Wayne B. Chandler - 2000 - 230 pages - Preview
If a sudra hears the vedas [the holy and religious texts of the Aryans], his ears shall be filled with molten lead. ... these are but a few of the Laws of Manu, they convey the extreme conditions that India's Blacks were made to endure . ...
Imagining India: The Idea of a Renewed Nation
Nandan Nilekani, Thomas L. Friedman - 2010 - 514 pages - Google eBook - Preview
At worst, they were outright discriminatory—the Manusmrithi (Laws of Manu), the authoritative Hindu text on India's caste system, said that “molten lead is to be poured into the ears of the 'low born' who dare to hear the recital of the ...

My Fair Lady

The real Professor Higgins: the life and career of Daniel Jones - Page 158
Beverley Collins, Inger M. Mees - 1999 - 571 pages - Preview
You mispronounce on purpose, and notice whether your native is just as well satisfied with your intentional ... In so doing, Jones reveals incidentally considerable knowledge of the work of the ancient Sanskrit phoneticians — possibly ...